• Odelsarven

Vetrasólhvarf and Jól

Christmas is one of our most beloved traditions. All hearts rejoice, it is said. We light the Advent candles, bake the familiar cakes and eat porridge. We decorate with little red “nisser”, decorate with typical Christmas colors and hang up stars. On the door is a Christmas wreath, evergreen with red berries. We drink Christmas brew, socialize, and spend a lot of time with the family. We, Norwegians, have to get pork ribs and other Christmas food. If sold out, Christmas will never be the same. We buy or chop down an evergreen tree and decorate this in the living room. Certainly with ornaments that have existed in the family for generations. Just before Christmas Eve, many of us visit our ancestors' graves. We light candles. We remember them and think of our dead ancestors. Some even put out porridge for “fjøsnissen”, at least with their expectant little ones – being young children. If they do not behave properly, Santa will not come. Most of us do all this as the greatest course - like we've always done. It's tradition ... But, most of us actually do not know why.


By Viggo Johansen.



Christmas falls in the month of Himinbjörg ("hidden / celestial mountain" - home of the god / natural force Heimdal). The month was also called Mörsugr, Jólmánaðr (Yule month, “fatmonth”) in the Iron Age calendar.


The content of the Nordic and Norwegian Christmas is purely pagan. The content and symbolism are linked to the other festivals of the year, which in the cycle accumulate during Yule.


Christmas was celebrated throughout pagan Europe, and throughout the Germanic world. The pagan Romans called the feast Saturnalia, and was dedicated to their Saturn. The Romans had statues of him, not unlike Santa Claus, as we know this figure today. They associated their Mercury with Odin. The Greeks had the same thing and dedicated the feast to their Kronos. In Scandinavian mythology, Mercury and Kronos are equivalent to our Odin. He is the god of the dead, personified as the spirit itself. Kronos is also equivalent to Heimdal (Kronos means time).


As the traditions tell us from autumn equinox to Christmas, we are in the domain of death symbolically, where nature is "dead" and the harsh winter is ahead of us. But, summer and the crops are reincarnated in the sun - our ancestors in our children and in the kin. Christmas is as old as the oldest form of "solar worship". The oldest sources we have are archaeological. Tombs, chambers and buildings from the Neolithic era (at least 5,000 years old) completely intact today, are facing and built for the sun. These burial chambers in the mounds were illuminated by the sun, exactly at the time of the solstice. At the time of the reincarnation, the sun would shine in the hall of the dead.


Christmas is linked to the dead, to Odin - to our ancestors, and our children. Therefore, Christmas is in Odin's sign as he personifies the dead and the spiritual.


The time is the darkest of the year, and for our ancestors the winters were far more demanding than the summer months. They did not count their lifetime in years, but in the number of winters. Our traditions of unity, family, kin, and light, joy, eating and drinking are characterized by spiritual inspiration, unity for survival and light in winter darkness. But the tradition and the symbolism go much deeper than this.


Ornaments are important at Christmas, and the ornaments we use contain heavy symbolism. We still decorate with mistletoe, the evergreen and forgotten growth, high up in the crown of the sacred Oak. The very key to rebirth, it contains the power of the sun, it is evergreen and it represents Balder, the son of Odin, the mythological personification of the sun, the light, and the very meaning of life - that returns from darkness (the realm of death - Hel) and avenges on the winter solstice. Balder, the white, shining and most beautiful of all gods, shot with an arrow of mistletoe, by the blind Hod, his brother (winter killed in summer). Hod (the blind, the blind eye of the spirit, Balder's necessary counterpart) was tricked by Loke (the spark, catalyst, and adrenaline) to shoot Balder (the sun / light, the end of life / day). Loke is also indirectly fire. You depend on it – it provides life-giving heat and must be kept under control. But, the fire can also devour everything in its path, killing you. Loke is the mythological personification of the "catalyst", the need for change, for things to happen, to destroy and create. He is the "adrenaline" personified, who starts all processes. Fire and flame are one of three basic elements present in everything.


The berries of the mistletoe are white. These berries are acidic, and the mistletoe lives like a parasite on other trees. The berries can be used as a remedy for infertility and against depression. The berries are partially toxic, but contain alkaloids that are soothing and have a healing effect. Just like the bittersweet story of Balder's death and rebirth.


In mythological terms, the white berries represent Friggs's tears, which she cries for her son, Balder. Frigg means "mother's love / love of a mother", "mother earth". She is the daughter of Fjörgyn (wilderness). Frigg's mythological spinning wheel represents Yule (of Jól (wheel)), where in mythology she sits in Fensalír (the water hall), spinning the (cycles) around and around. The circular shape of the Christmas wreath also represents her spinning wheel. Orion's belt was called Frigg's spinning wheel in Norse times. The mistletoe holds and thus represents the key, the very meaning of life, the meaning of death - eternal cycle and rebirth. It is the very symbol of the power of the sun / life. Therefore, it should be hung above the door during the solstice, and we shall kiss under it.


By Franz Kruger.



The Christmas tree is as old and un-Christian as Christmas itself. Evergreen growths and ornaments have been used for ages. Originally, the Christmas tree was supposed to be of yew. This tree grows very slowly, and carries red berries. Christmas wreaths of all kinds are imitations of the yew. This tree is a shortage, so yew has since been replaced by other evergreen trees, which grow in quantities in Norway and the Nordic countries. Today, we decorate the Christmas tree, just like the yew tree, with red Christmas balls imitating the berries. Yew is connected to the goddess Skade (damage, rivers and watercourses, the moon (the egg)). She is a hunting goddess, and her masculine counterpart is the ski, hunting and winter god Ull, otherwise equivalent to Hod earlier mentioned. The calendar month Ydalir is also named after the yew and in many places has been translated to "the valleys of yew".


All weapons of wood were made of yew, due to the excellent properties of the wood for this purpose. Hunting bows and spears were most often made of yew, if available. The tree grows very slowly, over several generations. Therefore, the tree was also the symbol of the spirits of our ancestors and was probably systematically planted in ancient times. Since Christmas is dedicated to ancestors, rebirth and reincarnation, the yew tree has an essential role in Christmas decorations, and not least as decorating the grave of our ancestors - to this day. The yew was to "awaken the memory" of the ancestors.


The Christmas presents under the tree are also as old and un-Christian as Christmas itself. The gifts were originally the assets of your ancestor you had been reborn to and named after (the ancestor called up again). The one from whom you had the blood inheritance and memory, accumulated through all your dead ancestors. In other words, these gifts went into family heritage (allodial heritage), and they were received by the symbolically reincarnated child on the winter solstice, given by the imitated “Santa” who personifies Odin / Heimdal. Our ancestors obviously did not believe in any physical “Santa”, as little as we do today. Children, and especially those less than seven years old, often tend to have faith in him. In pagan times, “Santa Claus” was part of the child's initiation. He was the symbol that the initiation process was complete. He was the very symbol of the transition from a child and to a reincarnated ancestor, personified as Heimdal / Odin (transitions / spirit) – and the symbol that the child took the step into the ranks of the “adult life”.


In our mythology Heimdal can hear the grass grow, migrate in and out of all conditions (life and death), his Gjallarhorn lies in the realm of death (the burial mound) under the tree of life Yggdrasil, and it is said that all people are his children. In our mythology, Heimdal has nine mothers. They personify the nine months a pregnancy lasts, the number nine also being Odins (spirit) number and the realms of Yggdrasil. Therefore, it is also said that a child in redemption is Heimdal, who opens up the realm of death and comes out into the light, and Odin gives the spirit (Önd). Therefore, our ancestors considered themselves as Odin's sons and daughters. Therefore, Odin is also reincarnated in the myths, at each Ragnarok, in the eternal cycle.



These gifts were collected from the burial mound, the same the ancestors were buried with, and the gifts were placed and hidden in the realm of death, under the tree. When we wrap the presents today and place them under the tree, the symbolism is associated with exactly the same. In order to claim your inheritance, you had to obtain the blood memory. It is hidden and "wrapped". The Christmas tree itself originally symbolized the entire cycle, with the different worlds (states / realms) - just as under the tree and inside the chamber of a burial mound, or symbolically "mother's life" / womb, if you will.

On the top of the Christmas tree, we find a star or other ornament (spear head). This represents the sun and the cosmos (stellar world). Our Christmas tree is the very image of Yggdrasil (order of the worlds / realms, Valhall, Hel, Midgard, Åsgard, etc.), like a burial mound with the sacrificial tree on top. We decorate the tree with decorations representing the berries / blood and elf figures (similar to the later Christian angels) representing the light elves / ancestors visiting us in the Yule tide. Birds were also used, as they also in the pagan tradition contain strong symbolism of ancestors, as well as small “nisser”, dwarves, and deer. We dance, sing and walk around the tree, and circles in the "middle world" Midgard - the world between the living and the dead - just as we danced on the burial mounds during the celebrations, especially during the summer solstice. Small "teddy bears” are also still common to decorate on the tree. The bear is a mythological winter animal, following the pagan cycle throughout the northern hemisphere. It gives birth to its selected embryos at the winter solstice in the cave / winter layer, after being fertilized around the summer solstice. It is said that the children should sleep on bear fur on Yule night.


The Christmas tree could be set up from the first day of Advent. Again, the symbolism of 40 days (40 weeks), the length of a pregnancy, is essential. The tree's symbolism is strongly linked to pregnancy and childbirth, as are the other high festivals of the year and their props as well. The red beads/balls and the light on the tree represent blood and oxygen, and the “links” on the tree represent the spear Odin (spirit) was wounded (sacrificed by himself, to himself) when he hung in the sacrificial tree mentioned in Voluspá (in the same way as the umbilical cord is connected to the "tree of life" and the child, Odin / spirit reincarnated).



A branch of the tree had to be cut off, and the housewife walked around the house three times with it, from south to north. This represents a symbolic closure of the three cycles that accumulate in reincarnation on the solstice. This symbolic act has been practiced on the countryside in Norway until recently, and you can still find traces of it in old rural culture. The father in the house was to place the star at the top of the tree. This star represents ancestry, the spiritual state, memory and blood heritage, which through the tree of life will be reincarnated.


A skull could be placed next to the Yule tree. This represents Mímír (the ancestral accumulated memory). This is the same skull symbol used on the Hâlogiaptann (Halloween / Alfablot), which today has taken the form of the carved pumpkin head. Advent and Christmas ornaments in general were red or gold colored ornaments, elves, “nisser”, dwarfs (what we call fjøsnisser) or small bears with red caps. All of this represents blood, oxygen, and the physical components of pregnancy. The colors of the Christmas decorations are red (representing blood), green (representing rebirth / growth), yellow / gold (representing the sun, light, memory and ancestry) and white (representing snow, hibernation, seed / reproduction).


When our ancestors sacrificed to nature (blót), it was not uncommon to hang sacrificial animals in the trees of the sacred groves. The trees were evergreen. The sacrificial animals were red, dripping with blood. The snow was white. Symbolically, the colors are also this - a tribute to nature (the gods), a mark of eternal cycle and rebirth.


From the Oseberg findings from the 8th century. The textiles show the function of the sacrificial tree, both symbolically and practically. The Christian Adam of Bremen also tells of the sacrificial tree in Uppsala in the year 1070. "At the hof stood a large tree, with wide branches and evergreen". Our pagan Yule tree, which is completely intact to this day, did not originate in Germany in the 19th century, nor can be traced anywhere to monotheistic Christian practice. It is monumentally older, and contains in its essence all the symbolism of our myths, and our original worldview. The roots of the Yule tree were "re-vitalized", reaching Norway only in the 19th century. Christian movements then tried to ban it, without success. The Yule tree then became a symbol of the Garden of Eden, when the Christians did not manage to get rid of it, despite that it was forbidden and illegal.



The Yule night was in many European pagan areas called "Mother's Night". On Christmas Eve you drank hot wine with herbs (mulled wine (julegløgg)). Wine in all our myths symbolizes blood. Odin in the myths only drinks wine / blood, just as a child in the womb does not get any other food. Blood is also equivalent in our myths to fire - life force.


On Yule night, a great log was found, and this was drizzled with this wine and honey (representing blood). Then gold coins are put into small bags, just like the ones we still use in the tradition of the tooth fairy (Frøy / ancestor) with coins in exchange for the teeth. These bags were thrown into the air, and the children had to pick them up and touch the log with it. Gold represents knowledge and memory, and reflects light (ancestors, memory). This is transformed into the log (symbolic mother's life (womb)), onward to the child (in the mother's life (womb))) through blood and fire. The firewood was burned in a fireplace or bonfire. It was also common to carve runes on it, with symbolic wishes or messages. We recognize this log to this day, and especially in the Anglo-Saxon tradition as "the Yule log". It still comes today in the form of a cake, which is to be eaten on Yule night. This log has the same symbolism as the mythological tale in Voluspá, where Odin, Vilje, and Ve breathe life into the tree trunks on the beach - which symbolically gives Ask and Embla life (spirit).


"The Yule log". The ashes from it should be laid under the bed until the summer solstice. Our pagan Yule father, of course, wears the yew wreath on his head. He has a wand (magic wand) that represents going from one state to another. He also carries a round bowl representing eternal cycle, closed circle and mother's life (womb).



Legends, myths and eternal legend stories were told around the bonfires. This evening the Yule socks were also to be hung under the tree, or by the fireplace. The socks were the symbol of the child's physical body, which the ancestors "enter". They have the same symbolism as our "mile boots" of our fairytales. This also, not surprisingly, represents birth and reincarnation. The gifts were given in the socks at night. It was also tradition to fill the socks with hey, to symbolically feed Odin's horse Sleipner. In our mythology he also bears the name Jólnir (of Norse Jól), and is called Jólafaðr (father of Jól). His horse Sleipner (of Norse Sleipnír) means, as mentioned earlier, "the soul that slides out / in of the physical body". The horse has eight legs, representing the eternal cycle. Horses in our mythology are also all related to the sun - and the spirits vessel.


It is not without reason that the modern Disney Santa is drawn by eight reindeer. The ninth reindeer was first invented in the 1930s and was nicknamed Rudolf. Two of the modern Santa's reindeer are still called "thunder" and "lightning", according to German tradition. Just like Thor's two goats, who originally had mythological names representing the same.


A romanticized portrayal of Heimdal, blowing the horn (Gjallarhorn). He is the personification of all the transition forces, from one state to another. From death to life, from life to death ...



Christmas Day fell on winter solstice. The Christmas month was 28 days, plus 1 day – in accordance to the woman's cycle. On Christmas Day the presents were opened. These should be wrapped in the house - which indicates that they symbolically belong to the burial mound, the dead, which must now be found by the child.


The children were probably also dressed in red and white in pagan times (like “Santa Claus” Heimdal, as an "unwashed" newborn), and with symbolism from the previously mentioned "Victory cap" in the mountain village culture of Valdres.


All straw goats and animal ornaments with claws / hooves should now be cleared out of the house. Now the high festival of Yule will last for seven days, as many days as it is years until a child is weaned. The seventh month of the solar calendar is the counterpart - midsummer. The seventh day of the week (the start of the new week) is Sunnadagr, Sunday, Balder's day. On New Year's Day (after seven days of Christmas) the housewife walked around the house three times again, in the opposite direction. This represents symbolic closure, and the beginning of a new cycle. Christmas is still held until the thirteenth day, which was called Eldbjörgdagr (“Fire rescue Day”) in pagan times (and still in rural Norway). Celebrating thirteen days of Christmas represents the thirteen months in the pagan calendar, with thirteen lunar phases (female cycle).


The number seven, nine and thirteen are sacred numbers, and they are pervasive throughout our mythology and in our folk tales. The number seven represents the number of years before the loss of teeth in the child, and the child's period before ancestors is given new lík and skuggi. The number nine represents the spirit / Odin and the number of months a pregnancy lasts. The number thirteen is a pagan number of luck, as the months of our original calendar were thirteen in number, and the gods (forces of nature) symbolically had the thirteenth as birthday in each and every respective month. The number three has the same function, as in our traditions there are three cycles, three crucial shifts / main high festivals, three main stages of a pregnancy and three basic elements. The ancient Greek philosophers found that the number three in mathematics (Pi) is the very formula of eternity, the circular, with infinite decimals - eternal cycle. Askeladden, Smørbukk and all our other Norwegian pagan stars repeat everything three times before they achieve glory, luck and honor. All good things are three.


It is not without reason that we bake "seven types for Christmas". These cakes were often decorated with eternity / swastika / sun wheel symbols, which represent precisely the sun and nature's eternal cycle. As mentioned before, “lussekatter” that are currently being baked for the thirteenth of the month are one such cake. The “butter eye” in the Christmas porridge is also such a symbol.


Christmas was, after all, an initiation ritual, which lasted throughout the year, through the three cycles and accumulated in the last – winter solstice and Yule, which is about symbolic reincarnation. Odin / Heimdal, also under the name Jólnir / Jólafaðr, brought the gifts. Whoever imitated was most likely a Sorceress (spiritual guide/spiritual midwife). It is said that Jólnir had a counterpart, dressed as a cloven beast, smeared with ashes and with horns. He distributed the ashes / coal to those who had not completed the initiation, and therefore had to retry the next year / cycle. Symbolically, this means that those who were not worthy of their ancestors' spirit received ashes - a picture that ancestors remained just that, until they were found worthy.


In Anglo-Saxon and Germanic sources we know this helper as "Krampus". In Norway and Scandinavia, he is today better known as "Svartepetter". The black represents ash / death, but also preservation - in a spiritual sense, preservation of the ancestor spirit. Ash was also practically used for preserving meat and food. Ash has excellent fertilizing properties and is clean. It represents a new life-giving and preserving start. Ashes, ragged clothes, and poor characters all represent dead and honorable ancestors in our fairytales.


"Krampus" or the more known "Svarteper"[1]. Odin/Heimdals helper.The same symbolism is attached to the person in front of the Jólabukk procession.



When Santa Claus today asks if the children have been kind, this also indicates that Christmas has always been an initiation ritual, a new start, a turn, a new sun. The use of masks and role-changers was a pagan custom. Dressing and symbolic masking seem to have been an act of imitating the gods (ancestors), where your own moment's ego is erased. You put on your gods and ancestral masks, and become part of the kin's eternal cycle. It’s a picture and a symbol that you are not only you, but your ancestors, accumulated in you.


If we look more closely at the etymology, Æsir (of Norse Ás) - our mythological gods – mean precisely spirit / breath, and mask (of Norse Grím). The Scandinavian name Asgrim is directly linked to this. It originally means "the mask of the gods" - that you imitate a spirit, your ancestors - your gods.


Yule is therefore packed with ancestral cult. Until a few decades ago, it was a normal practice in Norway's valleys and in the countryside to not clean up the dinner table on Yule night until the next day. The ancestors should also have their share, as their spirits were considered to wander in lights, shapes and shadows. It was a normal custom to sleep on the floor on yule night to honor your ancestors. Pictures / idols of ancestors were put up and were a part of the Yule decorations - where the ancestor was often placed in the high seat of the farm.


Our traditional food is also as old and un-Christian as Christmas itself. The pig was sacred. The most obvious and logical explanation for this is that it is very difficult, if not impossible, in an early hunter, gatherer and agricultural community to survive in Northern Europe without pigs as a food source (wild boar and domesticated pig). The pig was slaughtered for Yule, and this food source was used throughout the harsh winter. The fattiest pieces are the ones that must be consumed first - like ribs. Mythological, the pig we eat for Christmas is "Gyllenbørste," the pig that Frøy in our mythology rides on. He is a god of the family/kin (personified ancestor) and his pig is a symbol of the sun ("sparkling golden brush").


The pig we eat for Yule also represents the pig Særrimne (" test of the sea"). This is the pig the selected eats in Valhall (the condition of selected to be reborn). It is eaten during the day and is "reborn" at night. The chef is named Andrimne ("test of the spirit"), and the kettle the pig is boiled in is called Eldrimne ("test of fire") [2]. Eating a pig's head with an apple in its mouth has symbolism in the kin's personified ancestor - Frøy, his pig who personifies the sun / cycle, with apples (Idun's apples), which keeps you forever young through reincarnation in the kin – and that the gods (you, your ancestors, nature) remain eternally young.



«Andrimne

lets in Eldrimne

Særimne cook

the bacon is good

but few know

what the Einherjar eats”


- Gylvagínníng



Einherjer means "one who fights alone". These are the chosen ancestors, who are waiting for rebirth in the kin. They are Valhall's warriors. Maybe you now understand what our dead ancestors "eat"? What we, the living, symbolically still devour on Yule night? You become what you eat, it is said.


A good brew belongs to the Yule tide too. It was decided by law to brew the Yule beer. This was made from grain, and beer was made in the Nordic countries only after we started growing the first grain. We have brewed mead considerably longer and perhaps as far back as the Stone Age. There is heavy symbolism in cultic drinks, and the high festival of Yule was an example of this, above all.


Still, the straw goat is very widespread as Yule decorations. The straw goat, often in larger versions, stands outside the door or on the floor, or in smaller versions hung on the Yule tree, represents Tanngrisnir ("thunder)" and Tanngnjóstr ("tooth grinder" (lightning)). These are Thor's two goats pulling his wagon. The two goats are slaughtered and eaten every day in the myths, and the next morning they are just as alive. Just like the pig in Valhall. They represent the same thing - the sun, cycle and rebirth.

As we already know, Thor is Earth's son, his wife is Siv, with his golden, light hair. This hair (Sif) represents the fertile yellow fields and family.


The straw goat on the square in Gävle in Sweden. It has stood there at all times, but the historyless authorities say they have never understood why. Today, the Swedes in Gävle struggle with "vandals" burning down this Yule goat as soon as it has emerged. A thousand years ago, the monotheistic Christians burned down our dear symbols. In other words, Gävle has experienced this type of vandalism before. Today there are other enemies of Nordic Yule, from the same desert roots. Gävle is among the 55 "vulnerable areas/no go zones" defined by the authorities, where the majority belongs to Islam, with the same Abrahamic origin. In 2016, the goat was attacked and burnt with a fire bomb. The perpetrators are «unknown».



The Christians turned Yule into a desert story of the Holy Ghost and a virgin birth of a prophet to whom wise men gave gifts. The birth and death of this prophet, paradoxically follows the sun and the lunar cycles every single year.


Our inherent traditions were and are so strong that the Christians had to implement them, plagiarize, invert and subvert them, when they simply did not break. They dedicated the very symbol of Christmas today - Santa Claus - to the missionary St. Claus, who lived in the 300s, and made him a saint (hence St. Claus). Odin / Heimdal was converted to St. Claus, which is said to have originated in Turkey. His two helpers were converted from Odin's two ravens Hugin (the thought) and Munin [3] (the memory), who were the ones who reported if the children were worthy of the Yule gifts (the ancestors' possessions).


They tried to rename Jól (Yule) to Kristmesse (Christmas) in Norway - which they did manage otherwise in Europe. But, the pagan and real “Christmas” we are so fond of, is fortunately celebrated extensively to this day. Everything we do ritually pre-dates Abraham in the desert.


After the forced Christianization, Primstaven was marked with a half cross. The church renamed the day as Natalis Christi, or Christmass, and dedicated it to Jesus. His pretended birth on December 25 is not documented anywhere - and either in the Bible. What is documented is that his birthday was set by the Church of Rome in the 300s in their forced Christianization project during the falling Empire, and placed on the most important pagan high festival day of the entire year. Like the mythological personified pregnancy in which Odin, hanging in the tree of life, wounded with spear, given to himself, by himself, after 9 nights - re-incarnated, the Roman Church also plagiarized this story. They made it linear, filled it with sin and shame, exclusive resurrection, and removed the self-cultivating and life-celebrating we have in our original circular tradition [4].


In the Nordic countries we still retain the original name Jul / Jól. We still hold the "Yule night", where we celebrate on the evening of December 24, contrary to the rest of Europe. "Mother's Night" was therefore later linked to the Christian "Virgin Mary". The pagan day started as known at sunset, and not at sunrise.


The Christian Puritan Movement later banned Christmas in many places in Europe because it was not "Christian enough". The original pagan tradition that at that time also contained ancestral cult, straw goats, processions, “nisser”, dwarves, "Krampus" and "Svarteper", sun worship, feast and fun, was to be wiped out and Christmas eradicated. There was, and is, nothing Christian about it, you see. The Soviet Union under the communist regime also tried to eradicate Christmas, with the same backdrop. Christmas is about self-cultivation, ancient European and Norse traditions. It has always been incompatible with anything else.


[1] Svarteper/Krampus are, like many others, today under strong politically correct pressure. In the Netherlands there are currently great demonstrations against this symbolic creature. It is of the politically correct environment, and parts of the "new population" considered racist. Svarteper/Krampus is smeared with ashes, and this may be reminiscent of a less flattering version of a man from more “distant region”.


[2] Særimne, Andrimne and Eldrimne all also mean «the warior that gains strenght through struggle».


[3] Hugin and Munin represent the duality of the human mind. Hugin is the thought, but also logic and reason. Munin is memory, but also inspiration, wishes and will. In our mythology, Odin is afraid that the ravens will not return, as they fly out every single day to collect good and bad news for Odin (the spirit). In particular, Odin is afraid that Munin will not return. Inspiration, desire and will make things happen, and are the driving force - although it is also important to maintain logic and cause.


[4] In the 300s, Emperor Valentin in Rome signed what we today know as the "Bible" and adopted the constructed Christianity in its collapsing empire. Christianity was to be missioned and spread throughout the empire, converting strong decentralized and undefeated tribes, bringing conformity, submission, weakness and obedience to the ruler and Rome.

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